We did not perform pulmonary angiography in any patient because abnormalities of bronchial or nonbronchial arteries were found in all cases. All patients had been hospitalized in our ICU. Early chest radiography and flexible bronchoscopy were performed at the bedside at the time of ICU admission to lateralize the bleeding side, localize the specific site, and identify the cause of hemoptysis. All patients underwent standard medical management, including correction of hypoxemia with high concentrations of oxygen through a face mask, IV vasopressin, and antibiotics in case of documented or suspected bacterial infection. The patients with active tuberculosis were given antituber-culous treatment. In 12 cases, BAE was performed while the patient was treated with mechanical ventilation. canadian family pharmacy

Technique of BAE

In all cases, BAE was performed during active bleeding or soon after bleeding cessation. When BAE was not performed during active bleeding, the delay between the procedure and cessation of bleeding was never more than 6 h. This delay is ascribed to the fact that, in our center, the angiographers on duty are on call at home and also that in some instances, the angiographer was already involved in another vascular interventional procedure when he was asked to perform BAE.
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