Although the 92.3 percent response rate from the 39 secondary referral units was higher, we still consider this to be a fairly representative nationwide cross-section, as both responding and nonresponding groups consisted of a similar proportion of large and small District General Hospitals. No obvious regional differences were apparent.

More than one in five ICUs do not use the PAC; two thirds of the remainder used no more than two/ month, and only one nonsecondary referral Unit used more than five/month. Nearly a quarter of ICUs that perform invasive monitoring do not have a cardiac output computer and are unable to monitor cardiac output by alternative means. Antibiotics online fully Insertion of the PAC into patients on CCUs was even sparser, with the majority not using them at all and only 10 percent using more than two/month. The CTUs also appeared selective in their use, and only one in ten hospitals, mainly those with CTUs, insert them occasionally for perioperative monitoring.

Lack of expertise and equipment were the main reasons offered for nonusage of the PAC. In hospitals possessing the apparatus, clinical indications and lack of expertise were most frequently stated as reasons for limited use, although cost, clinical value, and risk also featured.
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