In this Gefitinib cost study, multiplex gap PCR was used to characterize the four common ��-globin gene deletions (both ��-thalassemia 1 allele [�CSEA and �CTHAI] and ��-thalassemia 2 allele [-��3.7 and -��4.2]) as shown in Figure 1. Table 4 demonstrates the number of risk alleles among thalassemia or Hb E-related blood donors. From all blood donors, there are 17 alleles (from 13 blood donors) that can cause the severe thalassemia in the offspring

(risk allele frequency = 3.7%). Among 17 risk alleles, Hb E allele (��E) is the most common form of all risk alleles (�C/, ��0/+ and ��E), 12/17 (70.6%), followed by ��-thalassemia 1 allele (�C/), 4/17 (23.5%), and ��-thalassemia allele (��0/+), 1/17 (5.9%). Table 4 Number of risk alleles and risk allele frequency in Southern Thai blood donors. 4. Discussion Blood donor selection is crucial to ensure the safety of both donors and recipients. According to the standards of the American Association of Blood Banks (AABB), hemoglobin concentration more than 125g/L was accepted for

blood donation [9]. The prevalence of thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobin varies from region to region, the frequency of ��-thalassemia in Bangkok and northern Thailand was ranging from 20 to 30%, and ��-thalassemia varies between 3 and 9%. Among abnormal hemoglobin, Hb E is the most common, especially in the northeastern part of Thailand and the junction of Thailand with Laos and Cambodia where its prevalence can reach 50�C60% [3, 4, 17]. The prevalence of ��-thalassemia trait, Hb E trait, homozygous Hb E, and ��-thalassemia 1 trait in Southern Thai couples was 2.22%, 12.08%, RHOBTB1 1.11%, and 3.06%, respectively, and among Thai population; Southern Thai population was found to have the lowest prevalence of thalassemia and Hb E [18]. In this study similar pattern with lower frequency of thalassemia and Hb E was observed in blood

Panobinostat clinical trial donors because Hb concentration in thalassemia carriers (��-thalassemia 1 trait, ��-thalassemia trait, and Hb E-related syndromes) varies ranging from normal value to very slight anemia [7, 19, 20]. Therefore, thalassemic individuals could or could not donate the blood and some thalassemic individuals who have anemia were excluded from this study. The frequencies of thalassemia in blood donors have been reported in several populations [10�C12, 21]. For example, among 80 Malaysian blood donors, the frequency of thalassemia was 16.25% which is slightly higher than this study [12]. Tiwari and Chandola [22] reported that the prevalence of microcytosis in Indian blood donors was 5.4% (50/925). Alabdulaali et al. [23] published that sickle cell trait was found 2% (23/1,150) in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH) in Riyadh. In addition, Bryant et al. [24] found that 2.8% (33/1,162) of the apheresis donors had low mean corpuscular volume values (MCV < 80fL). In the present study, microcytosis was found to be 25.9% in blood donors. These blood donors could be having hemoglobinopathies and/or iron deficiency [25, 26].
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