g., separated by a pause from the following intonational phrase). A total of 87.5% of confirming answers to positive propositions and 54.2% of rejecting answers to negative propositions met this criterion. Figure ?Figure22 shows the intonational

patterns associated with s�� ��yes�� as used by Catalan speakers to confirm positive propositions (black columns) and to reject negative propositions (gray columns), as well as their frequency of occurrence. Three types of intonational patterns were found in the Integrin inhibitor data, namely L* (falling tune), L+H* L% (rising-falling tune), and L+H* L!H% (a rising-falling-rising tune). While the first two have been typically associated with broad-focus assertions, the latter has been called the ��contradiction tune�� (Espinal and Prieto, 2011). Figure 2 Percentage of occurrence of intonational patterns associated with s�� ��yes�� used by Catalan speakers to confirm positive propositions (black columns) and to reject negative propositions (gray columns). The data correspond to answers ... The results in Figure ?Figure22 illustrate

an important distinction between the intonational strategies employed to confirm a positive proposition vs. to contradict a negative one. Thus, whereas Catalan speakers confirmed a positive proposition by using mainly broad-focus statement intonation (71% of L+H* L% and 14% of L* L% intonation patterns), they mainly used the L+H* L!H% pattern when they had to contradict a negative presupposition IWR-1 (in 77% of cases). The results of two chi-square tests showed that the presence of L+H* L% and Non-specific serine/threonine protein kinase L+H* L!H intonational

patterns was significantly related to the type of answer in which these patterns were produced (confirming vs. rejecting) [��2(1, 34) = 10.08, p < 0.01 for L+H* L% pattern; and ��2(1, 34) = 13.33, p < 0.01 for L+H* L!H]. Thus, results show that when Catalan speakers reject a negative presupposition by uttering a yes-word with a single intonational phrase, they mainly employ the L+H* L!H% contour. This L+H* L!H% nuclear configuration pattern has been found in previous studies (Espinal and Prieto, 2011; Tubau et al., 2015) to act as a relevant prosodic marker used in the contradiction of negative presuppositions associated with negative questions. Gestural strategies This subsection presents the analysis of the gestural patterns produced together with the yes-particles in rejecting and confirming answers. As in the case of prosodic analyses, only gestures performed together with isolated yes-answers and yes-answers produced in a single intonational phrase (e.g., separated by a pause from the following intonational phrase) were analyzed. The coded gestures involved head movements (e.g., head nod, head tilt, head shake), eyebrow movements (eyebrow raising), shoulder movements (e.g., shoulder shrug), as well as degrees of emphasis of some of the target movements (slight vs. strong head nod).
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