Seventeen of these patients were found to have a positive 18F-FDG PET/CT result (see Supplementary data online). Localized erythema While the intensity of erythema in the region of the generator pocket between the two groups was visually distinct (P = 0.029, Table?2), 18F-FDG uptake within the CIED pocket was increased in all 13 patients with erythema (grade 1�C4) that we examined (Table?3). 11/13 (84.6%) cases had microbiological evidence of infection

(Group 1, n = 4, Group 2, n = 7). Table?3 Profile and infective status of individual patients in Group 1 Localized pain only Out of the 18 patients who presented with lone pain in the region of the generator pocket, 6 (33.3%) had abnormal 18F-FDG PET/CT scans (Figure?2). A pathogen selleck kinase inhibitor was recovered from three of these six cases (50%). In contrast, the patients who presented similarly with localized pain but had negative 18F-FDG PET/CT findings (n = MK-2206 solubility dmso 12) were managed successfully with a conservative strategy. Figure?2 Example of a positive 18F-FDG PET/CT scan in a Group 1 individual with pain at the generator pocket site. (A) Increased 18F-FDG uptake is seen in the region of the left pre-pectoral pocket on the coronal views (yellow arrows). (B) In the sagittal plane, ...

SUVmax Increased 18F-FDG uptake (SUVmax) in the region of the generator pocket was seen in 85% (n = 17) of Group 2 (��definite�� infection) patients compared with 50% (n = 13) of Group 1 (��possible�� infection) patients. No control cases showed increased 18F-FDG uptake in the region of the generator pocket. In those Group 1 patients without increased 18F-FDG ROR1 uptake in the region of the pocket (n = 13, 50%), there was also no increase anywhere along the visualized length of the leads (Figure?3). Figure?3 Example of a negative 18F-FDG PET/CT scan in a Group 1 patient who presented with pain at the generator pocket site. This individual, with a history of grown up congenital heart disease and

20-year-old right-sided pacing leads (episode 16), presented ... SQR Overall, SQR was significantly higher in those cases that required extraction (n = 32) compared with those that were successfully managed conservatively (n = 14), and compared with controls (n = 40) [SQR: 4.80 (3.18�C7.05) vs. 1.40 (0.88�C1.73) vs. 1.10 (0.98�C1.40) respectively; P < 0.001] (Figures?4 and ?and55). Figure?4 18F-FDG uptake in patients with suspected CIED generator pocket infection. Individuals in Group 1 (n = 26) and Group 2 (n = 20) underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT assessment. 18F-FDG uptake in the region of the generator pocket, as expressed by the SQR, was lower ... Figure?5 18F-FDG uptake in extracted cases, non-infected cases and controls. SQR was significantly greater in patients who underwent extraction (n = 32) than in non-infected cases (n = 14) and controls (n = 40) [SQR 4.80 (3.18�C7.05) vs. 1.40 (0.88�C1.73) ... Amongst those initially assessed as only ��possible�� infection, i.e.
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